With reference to the history of India, the terms ‘kulyavapa’ and ‘dronavapa’ denote
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2020 Prelims]
(a) measurement of land
(b) coins of different monetary value
(c) classification of urban land
(d) religious rituals
- The term ‘vap’ in Gupta period India referred to the action of sowing seeds. During this time, there existed various texts and inscriptions used for land measurement.
- For measuring short distances, different terms were utilized:
- Angula: This term represented a measurement of approximately ¾ inch.
- Hasta: The hasta referred to the standardized distance between the tip of the elbow and the middle finger, measuring 18 inches and representing a cubit.
- Regarding large distances, the following terms were employed:
- Adhavapa: This term indicated an area ranging from 3/8 to 1/2 acre.
- Dronavapa: Dronavapa denoted an area of approximately 1½ to 2 acres.
- Kulyavapa: Kulyavapa represented an area measuring 12 to 16 acres, which was the space required to sow one kulya of grain.
- The presence of numerous land measure terms suggests that there was no standardized system of measurement, and different regions utilized different measures for land measurement during that period.
Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.