With reference to the cultural history of medieval India, consider the following statements:
- Siddhas (Sittars) of Tamil region were monotheistic and condemned idolatry.
- Lingayats of Kannada region questioned the theory of rebirth and rejected the caste hierarchy.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2016 Prelims]
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
- The majority of Siddhas adhered to the belief in the unity of all creation, practicing a form of monotheism. They preached a philosophy centered around love and service while condemning idol worship. Therefore, statement 1 is correct.
- The songs composed by the Siddhas were predominantly written in a poetic language referred to as the twilight language.
- Basavanna, the founder of Lingayatism, strongly opposed the rigid practices associated with the caste system.
- Basavanna, who served as a minister in the court of a Kalachuri ruler, was a Brahmana. His followers were known as Virashaivas or Lingayats, signifying their devotion to Shiva through the wearing of the linga.
- Lingayats held the belief that there is no rebirth, and upon death, the devotee reunites with Shiva without returning to the world. This perspective led the Lingayats in the Kannada region to question the concept of rebirth and reject the caste hierarchy. Thus, statement 2 is correct.
Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.