With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following pairs:

  1. Parivrajaka – Renunciant and Wanderer
  2. Shramana – Priest with a high status
  3. Upasaka – Lay follower of Buddhism

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2020 Prelims]

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Answer: (b)

Explanation:

Term Description
Parivrajaka Refers to renunciants and wanderers in ancient India
Shramana Refers to ascetics and renouncers in ancient India, including monks, lay followers, and ascetics from various sects like Buddhism, Jainism, Ajivika, and others
Upasaka Lay follower of Buddhism
Agni The god of fire in Hinduism, identified as the divine priest and hotṛ (invoking priest) in the initial verse of the Ṛigveda
Adhvaryu The administrative priest in Vedic rituals
Rtvij The sacrificial priest, encompassing various types of priests involved in the Vedic sacrifice, including hotri, potr, nestr, Agnidh, prasastṛ, adhvaryu, and brahman
Potṛ Involved in the ritual of the soma sacrifice
Neṣṭṛ Involved in the ritual of the soma sacrifice
Brahman Involved in the ritual of the soma sacrifice; part of the sacrificial priest group
Soma sacrifice A ritual involving the sacred drink soma, with priests like potṛ, neṣṭṛ, and brahman playing specific roles

Note: The table represents the different terms and their respective descriptions in a concise format.

Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.

Consider the following statements:                                                                   The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Consider the following statements:                                               

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Consider the following statements:                                                         The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Consider the following statements:                                               

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