With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following pairs:
- Parivrajaka – Renunciant and Wanderer
- Shramana – Priest with a high status
- Upasaka – Lay follower of Buddhism
Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2020 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
|Parivrajaka||Refers to renunciants and wanderers in ancient India|
|Shramana||Refers to ascetics and renouncers in ancient India, including monks, lay followers, and ascetics from various sects like Buddhism, Jainism, Ajivika, and others|
|Upasaka||Lay follower of Buddhism|
|Agni||The god of fire in Hinduism, identified as the divine priest and hotṛ (invoking priest) in the initial verse of the Ṛigveda|
|Adhvaryu||The administrative priest in Vedic rituals|
|Rtvij||The sacrificial priest, encompassing various types of priests involved in the Vedic sacrifice, including hotri, potr, nestr, Agnidh, prasastṛ, adhvaryu, and brahman|
|Potṛ||Involved in the ritual of the soma sacrifice|
|Neṣṭṛ||Involved in the ritual of the soma sacrifice|
|Brahman||Involved in the ritual of the soma sacrifice; part of the sacrificial priest group|
|Soma sacrifice||A ritual involving the sacred drink soma, with priests like potṛ, neṣṭṛ, and brahman playing specific roles|
Note: The table represents the different terms and their respective descriptions in a concise format.
Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.