With reference to Rowlatt Satyagraha, which of the following statements is/are correct?
- The Rowlatt Act was based on the recommendations of the ‘Sedition Committee’.
- In Rowlatt Satyagraha, Gandhiji tried to Utilize the Home Rule League.
- Demonstrations against the arrival of Simon Commission coincided with Rowlatt Satyagraha.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2015 Prelims]
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
- The Rowlatt Act, also known as the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, was proposed in the Imperial Legislative Council based on the findings of the Sedition Committee, which was headed by British Judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt. The committee was formed to investigate the alleged seditious activities of the Indian people. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
- Despite his prior cooperation with the British war effort, Gandhi strongly criticized the Rowlatt Act, referring to it as the “Black Act.” He argued that punishment should not be meted out to all for the isolated political crimes of a few. In response, Gandhi called for a nationwide mass protest. However, when the constitutional protest was met with brutal repression, he organized a Satyagraha Sabha, which included younger members of the Home Rule Leagues and the Pan Islamists. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
- As per the Government of India Act, 1919, a commission was to be established a decade later to assess the government’s progress and recommend new measures. The British government, under Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, formed the Simon Commission on November 8, 1927. This all-white commission consisted of seven members and was also known as the Indian Statutory Commission, with Sir John Simon serving as its chairman. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.
Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.