With reference to Indian history, which of the following is/are the essential element/elements of the feudal system?
- A very strong centralized political authority and a very weak provincial or local political authority
- Emergence of administrative structure based on control and possession of land
- Creation of lord-vassal relationship between the feudal lord and his overlord
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2015 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
- Statement 1 is not correct as the provincial or local political authority was not weak in the feudal system. Feudalism has been considered the social and economic structure of medieval society and a precursor to capitalism. It provided stability and helped to restore public order and strengthen the monarchy.
- The Zamindari system is similar to feudalism in that it is based on land ownership and control. Statement 2 is correct. The Zamindari system was introduced to collect taxes from peasants in the pre-colonial period and continued during British colonial rule.
- Statement 3 is correct as feudalism was a system that involved the exchange of land for service or labor, creating a relationship between lords and vassals.
Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.