With reference to culture history of India,consider the following statements:
- Most of the Tyagaraja Kritis are devotional songs in praise of Lord Krishna.
- Tyagaraja created several new ragas.
- Annamacharya and Tyagaraja are contemporaries.
- Annamacharya kirtnas are devotional songs in praise of Lord Venketshwara.
Which of the statement is given above are correct?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2018 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) 2, 3 and 4
- Tyagaraja was born on 14th May 1767 in the village of Thiruvayaru in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu. He was an ardent devotee of Lord Rama. In his devotion and honor, he composed numerous musical operas and approximately twenty-four thousand songs, a claim speculated among music historians. Therefore, statement 1 is not correct.
- Tyagaraja introduced several unusual ragas in Carnatic music. His compositions were known for their unique melodies and intricate structures, expanding the repertoire of the genre. Hence, statement 2 is correct. Tyagaraja’s songs and compositions were primarily focused on expressing his devotion to Lord Rama. His works were filled with deep reverence and love for his chosen deity.
- Taḷḷapāka Annamācārya (or Annamayya) was a 15th-century Hindu saint and the earliest known Indian musician to compose songs called sankirtanas in praise of the god Venkateswara, a form of Vishnu. Therefore, statement 3 is incorrect.
- These devotional songs, known as Annamacharya kirtanas, hold a special place in the realm of worship and devotion to Lord Venkateswara. Thus, statement 4 is correct.
Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.