When you travel in Himalayas, you will see the following:
- Deep gorges
- U-turn river courses
- Parallel mountain ranges
- Steep gradients causing land-sliding
Which of the above can be said to be the evidence for Himalayas being young fold mountains?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2012 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
- The Himalayas have several deep gorges, such as the Kali Gandaki Gorge and Indus Gorge, which is correct (statement 1).
- The Himalayas are young fold mountains that continue to rise due to tectonic forces, resulting in steep gradients and landslides, as seen in the recent glacier landslide in the Chamoli district of Himachal Pradesh, which is correct (statement 4).
- The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges: the Greater Himalayas (Himadri), Lesser Himalayas (Himachal), and Shivalik hills, which are the foothills, which is correct (statement 3).
- Himalayan Rivers often form meanders and even change their course, sometimes taking U-turn-like shapes. This is due to the tortuous upper areas of the Himalayas and the sudden reduction in water speed as they enter plains, allowing them to form meanders, which is correct (statement 2). Therefore, statements 1, 2, 3, and 4 are all correct.
Therefore, option (d) is the correct answer.