Salinization occurs when the irrigation water accumulated in the soil evaporates, leaving behind salts and minerals. What are the effects of salinization on the irrigated land?

[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2011 Prelims]

(a) It greatly increases the crop production

(b) It makes some soils impermeable

(c) It raises the water table

(d) It fills the air spaces in the soil with water


Answer: (b)

Explanation:

Salinization is the presence of salts and bicarbonates in soil and water, which can lead to various problems. Here are some of them:

  • Agricultural Production: Salinity can cause dehydration of plants due to inefficient osmosis, resulting in a decline in crop yield or even death of the plant. It interferes with nitrogen uptake, reduces growth, and stops plant reproduction, affecting crops, pastures, and trees.
  • Water Quality: High levels of salts may affect the taste of drinking water, with chloride having a low taste threshold. Sodium and magnesium sulfate levels in drinking water may have a laxative effect and reduce its suitability for grazing animals.
  • Rivers: Salt interacts with in-stream biota, changing the ecological health of streams and estuaries. Salts also help fine materials to flocculate, allowing more sunlight to penetrate rivers and leading to harmful algal blooms.
  • Terrestrial Biodiversity: Salinization can destroy natural habitats in many agricultural areas and fragment wildlife corridors.
  • Soil Erosion: Salinity is often associated with prolonged wetness and lack of surface cover, increasing the vulnerability of soils to erosion and making some soils impermeable.
  • Flood Risk: Saline soils have a limited capacity to absorb rainfall, resulting in high rates of run-off.
  • Infrastructure: Salt corrodes and destroys infrastructure, including houses, roads, and playing fields.

Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.

Consider the following statements:                                                                   The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Consider the following statements:                                               

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Consider the following statements:                                                         The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Consider the following statements:                                               

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