“Leaf litter decomposes faster than in any other biome and as a result the soil surface is often almost bare. Apart from trees, the vegetation is largely composed of plant forms that reach up into the canopy vicariously, by climbing the trees or growing as epiphytes, rooted on the upper branches of trees.” This is the most likely description of
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2021 Prelims]
(a) coniferous forest
(b) dry deciduous forest
(c) mangrove forest
(d) tropical rain forest
- The tropical rain forest is a forest characterized by tall trees in a region of high temperatures and heavy rainfall, with an average of 50 to 260 inches of rain annually.
- Rain forests are part of the tropical wet climate group and typically have a temperature range of 20°C to 34°C, with humidity levels between 77% and 88%.
- Rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year, with a brief season of less rain. Rainforests are generally located near the equator.
- The majority of trees in a tropical rainforest have straight trunks that do not branch out and smooth, thin bark that provides protection from water loss and freezing temperatures while also making it difficult for plant parasites to take hold.
- The bark of different species of trees is often similar, making identification by bark difficult, but many trees can be identified by their flowers.
- The topsoil in rainforest regions is typically very poor in fertility, as heavy rains wash out most of the nutrients. Soil erosion and depletion follow rapidly.
- The vegetation in the equatorial regions is comprised of numerous evergreen trees that yield valuable tropical hardwoods, including mahogany, ebony, dyewoods, and others.
Therefore, option (d) is the correct answer.