In the context of proposals to the use of hydrogen-enriched CNG (H-CNG) as fuel for buses in public transport, consider the following statements:

  1. The main advantage of the use of H-CNG is the elimination of carbon monoxide emissions.
  2. H-CNG as fuel reduces carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions.
  3. Hydrogen up to one-fifth by volume can be blended with CNG as fuel for buses.
  4. H-CNG makes the fuel less expensive than CNG.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2019 Prelims]

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4


Answer: (b)        

Explanation:

  • H-CNG is a blend of hydrogen and CNG, the ideal hydrogen concentration being 18%. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
  • Compared to conventional CNG, use of H-CNG can reduce emission of carbon monoxide up to 70%, besides enabling up to 5% savings in fuel, tests by the Automotive Research Association of India and Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL) have found. Hence, statement 1 is not correct whereas statement 2 is correct.

Consider the following statements:                                                                   The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Consider the following statements:                                               

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Consider the following statements:                                                         The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Consider the following statements:                                               

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