Consider the following statements:
- The Factories Act, 1881 was passed with a view to fix the wages of industrial workers and to allow the workers to form trade unions.
- N.M. Lokhande was a pioneer in organizing the labour movement in British India.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2017 Prelims]
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
- The Factory Act of 1881 was the first-ever act implemented during Lord Ripon’s rule in British India.
- To further improve the working conditions of labour, a Factory Commission was established in 1885.
- The Act prohibited the employment of children under seven and also restricted the working hours of children under twelve.
- Additionally, it mandated a one-hour rest period during the working hours and proper fencing of dangerous machinery.
- However, there was no mention of forming trade unions in the Act, making statement 1 incorrect.
- M. Lokhande played a crucial role in organizing the labour movement in British India and advocated for better working conditions of textile mill-hands as well as addressing caste and communal issues, making statement 2 correct.
Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.