Consider the following statements:
- Most of the world’s coral reefs are in tropical waters.
- More than one-third of the world’s coral reefs are located in the territories of Australia, Indonesia and Philippines.
- Coral reefs host far more number of animal phyla than those hosted by tropical rainforests.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2018 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
- Coral reefs are primarily found in the tropical zone between 30º N and 30º S latitude, which is where most of the world’s coral reefs are located.
- Coral reefs require specific conditions for growth, such as a preferred temperature range of 22º to 30º C, a water depth of no more than 200m, and a salinity of 27 to 40%. They are commonly found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans due to the warm, shallow, and clean water in those regions.
- More than one-third of the world’s coral reefs are situated in Australia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Scientists estimate that reef habitats support over 25,000 known species from 32 of the 33 animal phyla, which is four times the number of phyla found in tropical rainforests.