Consider the following statements:
- Agricultural soils release nitrogen oxides into environment.
- Cattle release ammonia into environment.
- Poultry industry releases reactive nitrogen compounds environment.
Which of the statements given above is/arc correct?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2019 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
- Statement 1 is correct: The Indian Nitrogen Assessment, the first-ever quantitative assessment of nitrogen pollution in India, has revealed that nitrogen particles constitute the largest fraction of PM 2.5, a class of pollutants closely associated with respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. It has also shown that agricultural soils were responsible for over 70% of N2O emissions in India in 2010, followed by waste water (12%) and residential and commercial activities (6%).
- Statement 2 is correct: The assessment found that cattle contribute to 80% of the ammonia production, despite their stable population growth rate of 1%.
- Statement 3 is correct: The poultry industry, which has an annual growth rate of 6%, was responsible for an excretion of reactive nitrogen compounds totaling 0.415 tonnes in 2016.