Consider the following:
- Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
- Missile Technology Control Regime
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
India is a member of which of the above?
[UPSC Civil Services Exam – 2022 Prelims]
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank:
- Mission and Goals: The AIIB is a multilateral development bank that aims to improve social and economic outcomes in Asia by investing in sustainable infrastructure and other productive sectors. It aims to connect people, services, and markets to build a better future.
- Establishment and Operations: The AIIB was established by the AIIB Articles of Agreement, a multilateral treaty that entered into force in December 2015. It is headquartered in Beijing, China and began operations in January 2016. Twenty-one countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) regarding the AIIB in Beijing, China, in October 2014.
- Membership: The AIIB has members from Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uzbekistan, Vietnam.
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
- Objectives: The MTCR is a group of 35 nations that control the export of missile technology, including drones and UAVs. It aims to limit the proliferation of missiles and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical or nuclear attacks.
- Establishment and Membership: The MTCR was set up in 1987 by the G7 countries as an informal and voluntary partnership. India became the 35th member of the MTCR in June 2016. The decisions are taken by the consensus of all the members.
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:
- Objectives: The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation that aims to maintain peace, security, and stability in the Eurasian region. It has political, economic, and military dimensions.
- Establishment and Charter: The SCO was created in 2001, and the SCO Charter was signed in 2002 and entered into force in 2003. The Charter outlines the organisation’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.
- Membership: The SCO comprises eight Member States, including China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.